How Does One Contract Hiv – Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an infection that attacks the body’s immune system, specifically white blood cells called CD4 cells. HIV destroys these CD4 cells, weakening a person’s immune system against opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and yeast infections, serious bacterial infections, and some cancers.
It is recommended that anyone at risk of HIV infection should be tested. People at high risk of HIV infection should seek comprehensive and effective HIV prevention, testing and treatment services. HIV infection can be detected using simple and inexpensive rapid diagnostic tests as well as self-testing. It is important that HIV testing services follow the 5Cs: consent, confidentiality, counselling, accurate results and linkage to treatment and other services.
How Does One Contract Hiv
People diagnosed with HIV should be offered antiretroviral therapy (ART) as soon as possible after diagnosis and treated using clinical and laboratory parameters including tests to measure the virus in the blood (viral load) during time- Timely monitoring should be done. If you take antiretroviral drugs regularly, this treatment also prevents the spread of HIV to others.
Living With Hiv/aids
At diagnosis or shortly after initiation of antiretroviral therapy, a CD4 cell count should be performed to assess the individual’s immune status. The CD4 cell count is a blood test used to evaluate the progression of AIDS, including the risk of opportunistic infections, and to recommend the use of preventive measures. treatment. The normal range of CD4 counts is 500 to 1500 cells/mm3 of blood, and it gradually decreases over time in people who do not receive or do not respond well to anti-ART. If a person’s CD4 cell count is less than 200, then his immunity becomes very weak. , making them vulnerable to infection and death. People with a CD4 count of less than 200 are described as having advanced HIV disease (AHD).
HIV viral load measures the amount of virus in the blood. This test is used to monitor the level of viral transmission and the effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs. The goal of treatment is to reduce the viral load in the blood to an undetectable level (less than 50 copies/mL), and the presence of a persistent detectable viral load (more than 1000 copies/mL ) in HIV-infected individuals on antiretrovirals. drugs. There is a sign. Inadequate treatment response and the need to change or adjust the treatment regimen.
The Global Health Sector Strategy 2022–2030 on HIV aims to reduce HIV infection from 1.5 million people by 2020 to 335,000 people in 2030, and to reduce deaths from 680,000 people in 2020 to 240,000 in 2030.
Most people do not experience HIV symptoms for the first few months after infection and may not even know they are infected. Others may have flu-like symptoms including fever, headache, rash, and sore throat. However, these first few months are when the virus is most contagious.
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As the disease progresses, the symptoms will be more widespread and more pronounced. These can include swollen glands, weight loss, fever, diarrhea and cough. HIV reduces the body’s ability to fight other infections, and without treatment, people become more susceptible to other serious diseases such as tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, bacterial infections, and lymphomas and certain cancers, including sarcoma Kaposi.
HIV diagnosis uses a rapid test that gives results the same day and can be done at home, although laboratory tests are required to confirm the infection. This early detection greatly improves treatment options and reduces the risk of exposure to others, including sexual partners or drug sex.
HIV is completely preventable. Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents mother-to-child transmission of HIV during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Some people who are on antiretroviral therapy and suppress the virus will not transmit HIV to their sexual partners.
Condoms protect against HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, and prophylaxis uses antiviral drugs to prevent HIV. Male circumcision is recommended in high burden countries in East and South Africa. Harm reduction (injection programs and opioid replacement therapy) prevents HIV and other blood-borne infections from people who inject drugs.
Hiv Patients In Botswana Get Adequate Treatment But Not All Of Them
HIV is treated with antibiotics containing one or more drugs. ART does not cure HIV but it slows replication in the blood, reducing the viral load to undetectable levels.
Antiretroviral therapy helps people with HIV live healthy and productive lives. It also acts as an effective deterrent, reducing the risk of further exposure by up to 96%.
ART must be taken daily for the rest of the person’s life. People can continue to receive safe and effective antiretroviral therapy if they adhere to their treatment. In cases where antiretroviral drugs are ineffective – for reasons such as HIV drug resistance – loss of contact with health care providers and drug storage, people should switch to other medicines to protect their health.
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Undetectable Viral Load And Transmission
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Low/no Risk Sexual Practices
, HIV damages the human body by weakening the immune system (1). AIDS continuously destroys the cells of the immune system – especially white blood cells called CD4 cells – which over time causes a person to become
Once the HIV infection is present in the body, the person has more and more immunity until it reaches the point where it is classified as having the disease.
, This is often the last stage of HIV infection, where the person’s body is too immune to develop infection, disease or cancer and is no longer able to defend itself (1).
There is no cure for HIV (1). However, if a person is infected with HIV, there are treatments that can help maintain health.
Prep For Hiv Prevention Available For Free From Federal Government
AIDS is spread between humans through the exchange of certain types of body fluids. Body fluids that can transmit HIV include blood, semen, breast milk, and vaginal fluids (1).
While caution is required in some situations – such as during sex or when there are open wounds – this certainly does not mean that it is not safe to be around someone who has HIV. Think about how you interact with many people – there is no exchange of body fluids. Spreading discriminatory ideas only creates fear for people living with HIV, which only harms those living with the disease.
HIV is spread mostly through sexual activity and drug use among adults in the United States (2). Mother-to-child transmission is infant transmission (2).
Knowing which activities put you at greater risk for HIV infection can help you make the best choices for you. This should come as no surprise to most adults with a basic understanding of sex education – HIV is often sexually transmitted.
Undetectable = Untransmittable (u=u)
Having unprotected sex (without a condom or barrier) puts a person at risk of contracting HIV. The best way to avoid HIV is to avoid unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex with someone who has HIV, or who does not know their HIV status.
This type of sex has the highest risk of HIV infection (2). Both partners who have unprotected anal sex are at risk of contracting HIV (and other STIs), but anal partners are at greater risk. The tissue inside the anus is thin and is often torn during anal sex, allowing viruses from semen or blood to enter the body. Penetrating partners are also at risk of getting HIV, as the virus can enter the body through the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body) or through a cut wound or open in the genital area (2). While it is difficult to estimate the rate of HIV transmission from unprotected anal sex, research indicates that one infection occurs in every 72 unprotected anal sex (3).
Anal sex is not limited to men who have sex with men – partners of either gender can enjoy anal sex. To prevent the spread of HIV, always use a condom when having anal sex.
Like anal sex, unprotected vaginal sex can transmit HIV to a partner. The vagina, like the anus, is also made of soft tissue and can become irritated during sex, which can allow HIV to enter the body through semen, semen or blood. One in 1250 unprotected genital-vaginal intercourse will result in HIV infection (3). While this number may seem small, several factors can influence and increase this referral rate.
Facts About Hiv In Africa
People who are sexually active can get HIV from vaginal fluid or blood through vaginal sex, through the urethra, or through an open wound or sore on the genitals (2), although this transmission is common (2) 3) is only about half. . Using a condom protects both people.
Although it is very rare, it is possible to transmit HIV through the oral route.
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