S&p Low Volatility High Dividend Etf – Line chart of S&P 500 daily closing values from January 3, 1950 to February 19, 2016
Log chart of daily closing values of the S&P 500 Index from January 3, 1950 to February 19, 2016.
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A stock market index that tracks the stock performance of the 500 largest listed companies in the United States. It is one of the most watched stock indices. As of December 31, 2020, more than $5.4 trillion was invested in index-linked assets.
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The S&P 500 Index is a weighted/investment-weighted free-float index. As of August 31, 2022, the nine largest companies in the S&P 500 list account for 27.8% of the index’s market capitalization and they are from highest to lowest weight: Apple, Microsoft, Alphabet (including classes A and C. ) . shares), Amazon.com, Tesla, Berkshire Hathaway, UnitedHealth Group, Johnson & Johnson and ExxonMobil.
The S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats are stocks that have increased their dividends for 25 consecutive years.
The index is one of the Conference Board’s leading economic indicator calculations, which is used to assess the direction of the economy.
The S&P 500 is managed by S&P Dow Jones Indices, which is majority owned by S&P Global and whose members are appointed by the committee.
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The average annual return from inception in 1928 to 31 December 2021 is 11.82%. The average annual return from 1957 to December 31, 2021 for a 500-share entry into the index is 11.88%.
Index funds, including mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs), can replicate the performance of an index by holding an equal portion of the same shares as the index before fees and expenses. ETFs that mirror the performance of indexes are issued by Vanguard Group (NYSE Arca: VOO ), iShares (NYSE Arca: IVV ) and State Street Corporation (NYSE Arca: SPY ), with Curtley being the most liquid based on average daily volume ( NYSE Arca : SPY ), while SPY has a very high X-factor of 0.09% compared to only 0.03% for VOO and IVV. Mutual funds that track the index include Fidelity Investments, offered by Rowe Price and Charles Schwab Corporation.
Direxion offers leveraged ETFs that aim to generate three times the daily return of an investment (NYSE Arca: SPXL ) or short (NYSE Arca: SPXS ) the S&P 500 Index.
In the derivatives market, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) offers futures contracts that track the index and are traded on the exchange’s floor in op outcry auctions or on the CME Globex platform and are the exchange’s most popular product.
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The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) offers options on the S&P 500 index, as well as S&P 500 index ETFs, reverse ETFs and leveraged ETFs.
On Monday, March 4, 1957, the index expanded to include the Curt 500 companies and became the S&P 500 Stock Composite Index.
In 1962, Electronic Systems became a compiler of the S&P indices, including the S&P 500 Stock Composite Index, 425 Stock Industrial Index, 50 Stock Utility Index, and 25 Stock Railroad Index.
On August 31, 1976, Vanguard Group offered retail investors the first mutual fund that tracked an index.
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Since 1986, the index’s value has been updated every 15 seconds, or 1,559 times per trading day, with price updates reported by Reuters.
On January 22, 1993, it began trading in Standard & Poor’s Depository Receipt Exchange-Traded Fund, issued by State Road Corporation.
Friday, September 17, 2021 is the last trading date for the original major SP contract, which began trading in 1982.
Like other indices managed by the S&P Dow Jones Indices, but unlike indices such as the Russell 1000 Index which is strictly rules-based, the components of the S&P 500 Index are selected by a committee. When considering eligibility for new listings, the committee evaluates a company’s worthiness based on eight primary criteria: market capitalization, liquidity, headquarters, stock market, international industry rating standards and the U.S. economy. Industry restructuring, financial viability, stock market timing, and the stock market. Over the past few years, the number of S&P 500 companies with secretive boards has declined.
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Eligibility criteria for market capitalization are for inclusion in the index, not permanent membership. Therefore, a part of an index that appears to violate the criteria in addition to this index cannot be removed unless the current circumstances justify changing the index.
Index funds must buy these stocks to continue tracking the index so that the stocks increase in value as they are added to the index.
In October 2021, Bloomberg News reported that some companies claimed to have obtained ratings from S&P Global to increase their chances of inclusion in the S&P 500 Index-Ev without meeting the full criteria.
This means that companies are weighted in proportion to their market capitalization in the index. To determine a company’s market capitalization, only the number of shares that are publicly traded (“publicly traded”) are considered in the index for weighting purposes; Shares held by non-public insiders or controlling shareholders are not included in the calculation.
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Index level = ∑ ( P i ⋅ Q ja ) D i v ja s o r } =} cdot } right) over divisor}}
Where P i } is the price of the ith stock in the index, Q i } is the number of publicly available (“float”) shares of that stock, and D i v i s o r is the normalization factor.
The number is adjusted to keep the index value constant despite corporate actions that affect market capitalization and affect the accounting formula, such as issuance of additional shares, share buybacks, special shares, constitutional amendments, rights offerings, and division of the company. A stock split does not affect the dividend because it does not affect the market capitalization.
If a company is liquidated and replaced by a different market capitalization, the dividend must be adjusted so that the value of the S&P 500 index remains constant. All dividend adjustments are made after the close of trading and after calculating the closing value of the S&P 500 Index.
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For example, Apple has 16.41 billion common shares outstanding as of May 27, 2022. The day ended at $146 per share. This gives the company a free float market capitalization of 16.41 billion shares x $146 per share = $2.40 trillion. Assuming that all companies included in the S&P 500 have a combined market capitalization of $38.29 trillion, the S&P 500 Index’s level is $38.29 trillion/8.3 billion = 4,613.25.
The average annual total return of the index since its inception in 1926, including dividends, and an annualized standard deviation over the same period of 20.81%, a compound annual growth rate of approximately 9.8% (6% after inflation).
However, the index reached new highs on only 5% of trading days, meaning that on 95% of trading days, the index closed at its all-time high.
On Black Monday (1987), the index had its worst daily loss, falling 20.47% in one day.
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On March 24, 2000, at the height of the dot-com bubble, the index hit a daily high of 1,552.87. This peak was only surpassed on May 30, 2007. On October 10, 2002, during the stock market crash of 2002, the index fell to 768.83, down nearly 50% from March 2000.
On May 30, 2007, the index closed at 1,530.23, setting the first record closing level in 7 years. On October 11, 2007, the index hit a new all-time daily high of 1,576.09.
Between September 15, 2008 and the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers in 2008, the index was up or down 29 times 3% a day.
On October 13, 2008, the index closed up 11.6%, its best one-day gain since its inception in 1957.
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The index continued to decline in early 2009, closing at 676.53 on March 9, 2009, a 13-year low. From a high in October 2007 to a low in March 2009, it fell 56.8%, the largest since World War II.
In the US beer market 2007-2009, as of March 6, 2009, the index was 666.
On April 14, 2010, the index closed at 1,210.65, its highest close of more than 1,200 since the 2007–08 financial crisis.
On April 29, 2011, the index closed at a post-crisis low of 1363.61. However, after the stock market crash in August 2011, on October 4, 2011, the index briefly fell below 1100.
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The index rose 13% in 2012 despite significant volatility due to electoral and economic uncertainty and the third round of quantitative easing. On December 31, 2012, the index closed at 1426.19, representing an annual increase of 13% and the highest increase in 3 years.
On March 28, 2013, the index crossed its all-time high of 1565.15, recovering from all losses after the major depression.
On March 2, 2015, the index reached a historic closing high, while the Nasdaq Composite closed above 5,000 for the first time since 2000.
After the turmoil in China’s stock market in 2015-2016, period