When Will World End According To Scientists

When Will World End According To Scientists – A study based on the analysis of millions of stars, including the results of the Gaia mission, has resulted in estimates of how many years the Sun lived before dying.

The study also determined the brightness and color of each star as we perceive it from Earth. In addition, it was also found that the size and temperature characteristics of stars change repeatedly with their age.

When Will World End According To Scientists

Scientists and astronomers participating in this study determined that the most important star in the Milky Way is about 4.57 billion years old. It has great stability due to its structure based on hydrogen and helium.

When Will It End?

This stability will not last forever. As the years pass, the star will lose its supply of hydrogen and, like all stars, the Sun will eventually die. But when will it happen?

According to the analysis, the temperature of the sun will reach its peak in 8 billion years, after which its temperature will cool and its size will increase.

This will be the beginning of the death of the Sun, and it will reach the stage in 11 billion years, when it will become a small white star with almost no light. Here’s how the world could end – and what we can do about it Rare disasters are difficult to study and plan for, but they can be too dangerous to ignore.

The Goose Bluff Meteor Crater in Australia was formed when a 1 km wide space rock hit Earth 142 million years ago. © Stephen Alvarez / National Geographic Creative

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Insulated with layers of carpet stuck in a burning apartment, the last family on Earth surrounds a pot of oxygen around a melting fire. Pulled from the heat of the Sun by a dark rogue star, the planet was exiled to the cold of the solar system. A lone tribe of survivors must venture into the endless night to recover atmospheric gases frozen like ice.

As far as end-of-humanity scenarios go, the dark vision of Fritz Lieber’s 1951 short story “A Peel of Air” is a distant possibility. Scholars who consider such matters believe that a spontaneous disaster such as a nuclear war or a bioengineered pandemic is possible. However, there will also be many other extreme natural hazards – including space and geological changes – on Earth. Life as we know it is going backwards, wiping out advanced civilizations, wiping out billions of people, or maybe even our species.

In 1859, power outages caused by solar storms upset telegraph operators. Today, they can wreak havoc on power grids and electronics. NASA/Martin Stojanowski

Anders Sandberg, a disaster researcher at the Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University in the UK, says there has been surprisingly little research on the topic so far. Last time he checked, “there are more papers on dung beetle species than human extinction,” he says. “Our priorities may be a little wrong.”

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Often, moderately severe disasters, such as earthquakes, receive more funding than less likely events. Bias can also happen at work. For example, scientists who began studying asteroid and comet impacts complained of encountering a pervasive “laughter factor.” Sandberg says that, consciously or unconsciously, many researchers treat catastrophic risks as the province of fiction or fantasy – not seriously.

However, some researchers continue to think the unthinkable. They say that with adequate knowledge and proper planning, it is possible to prepare for—or in some cases prevent—rare but devastating natural disasters. Everyone wanted to laugh, but the existence of human civilization could be in danger.

As in the story of Labour, a threat to civilization is not a small sun, but too many. Bill Murtagh saw how it can start. On the morning of July 23, 2012, he sat in front of a colorful array of screens at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Space Weather Prediction Center in Boulder, Colorado, watching two known energetic particle clouds. such as coronal mass ejections (CME). It is said From the sun and barrels in space. Just 19 hours later, the solar buckshot passed where the Earth had been a few days before. If it had killed us, say the scientists, we would have always recovered.

Now assistant director for space climate in the White House Office of Technology Policy in Washington, DC, Murtagh spends much of his time thinking about solar flares. CMEs do not directly harm humans and their effects can be dramatic. By trapping charged particles in the Earth’s magnetic field, they can trigger geomagnetic storms that light up the brilliant auroral displays. But these storms can also cause dangerous electrical currents in long-distance power lines. The currents only last a few minutes, but they can bring down the power grid by destroying high-voltage transformers, especially at high latitudes, where the Earth’s magnetic field lines intersect as they approach the surface.

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The worst CME event in recent history occurred in 1989, which blew out a transformer in New Jersey and left 6 million people without power in the Canadian province of Quebec. The largest on record – the Carrington event of 1859, named after the British astronomer who observed the solar flare – was 10 times more intense. It sent currents flowing through telegraph cables, spreading fires and shocking operators, while the aurora borealis danced as far south as Cuba.

“It was amazing,” says Patricia Reiff, an astrophysicist at Rice University in Houston, Texas. But if another storm of that size were to hit today’s infrastructure, she says, “there would be tremendous consequences.”

Some researchers fear another Carrington-like event could knock out tens to hundreds of transformers, putting large swaths of the continent in the dark for weeks or months — maybe years, Murtagh says. This is because custom, in-house replacement transformers cannot be purchased off the shelf. Transformer manufacturers believe that such fears are over and most of the equipment will survive. But Thomas Overby, an electrical engineer at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, says no one knows for sure. “We don’t have a lot of data related to major storms because they are so rare,” he says.

What is clear is that widespread blackouts can be devastating, especially in countries that rely on highly developed power grids. “We did an amazing job of creating a great threat for this threat,” says Murtagh. Everything from information technology, fuel pipelines, water pumps, ATMs, plugs will become redundant. “It will affect our ability to govern our country,” says Murtagh.

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A big event can happen in our life. Research shows that storms like Carrington hit the Earth once every few centuries. A recent study found a 12 percent chance of such a storm in the next decade.

But at least we’ll see it coming. Solar telescopes detect CMEs as they form, and spacecraft a million kilometers from Earth measure critical parameters as they pass. Armed with information such as the orientation of the CMA’s magnetic field, scientists can predict whether the cloud of particles will flow around Earth like “rocks in a river,” or if the field will connect to Earth to trigger a geomagnetic storm. , says Ruff. . . Forecasters can then issue warnings 30 minutes to an hour before the CMA.

Such warnings are only useful if governments and network operators are ready to respond, and countries around the world begin to take the threat seriously. Last year, the White House released a comprehensive National Space Weather Strategy and accompanying action plan outlining the need to reduce risks and improve preparedness. A bipartisan bill will soon be before the Senate to make part of the plan a reality.

A pillar of the plan is to strengthen the electrical network. Encouraged by regulatory authorities, operators have already begun to take stock of vulnerable parts and critical assets. The next step is to protect the network by installing current blocking devices, such as series capacitors, which are already common in the western United States because they help the transmission of energy over long distances, and limit overloads of energy. Damage to the transformer. Overby says the quick response from the energy industry has been encouraging.

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But complete protection against an event like Carrington may never be possible, Overby says, simply because of the cost. Instead, operators can react to incoming megastorms by shutting down large portions of the grid to protect transformers, accepting short-term disruptions to avoid long-term disaster.

The PanStars telescope in Maui, Hawaii is part of an astronomical network that scans the night sky for objects that may one day collide with Earth. © Stephen Alvarez / National Geographic Creative

For another threat from the sky – a large asteroid or comet impact – there is no way to limit the damage. Researchers say that the only way for humanity to protect itself is to avoid the collision altogether.

“This is something that we as a species can never, ever, ever allow to happen,” says Ed Lowe. “It’s the end of humanity.” In 2002, Lu, a former astronaut, founded the B612 Foundation in Mill Valley, California—a private organization that works to protect Earth from near-Earth objects, or NEOs.

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